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Copyright by Stephen Wilbers, Ph.D.


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Related column          60 words every on-the-job writer should know          Lynellís word list

Columns on vocabulary

A good vocabulary will make you a better writer
First published March 5, 1999

Expand your vocabulary to communicate
First published February 19, 2007

Use precise vocabulary to avoid cliches and wordiness
First published January 15, 2005

Broad vocabulary complements analytical writing
First published November 3, 1995

Expand your analytical vocabulary

First published March 5, 1999

A good vocabulary will make you a better writer

By Stephen Wilbers

How good is your vocabulary?

Hereís a little test. In the sentences below, replace the overused, nondescript words with more precise and colorful words. Try reading the sentences out loud. Note their lack of emphasis and precision. Search your memory for better words.

1. Her sincerity made her a believable witness.

2. I find your offer interesting/attractive.

3. Unless there are moderating circumstances, I will have to end your contract.

4. Your claim that you want to help is not sincere.

How do your choices compare with the original words? If your words are more precise and colorful, you have a relatively good vocabulary. If your words are equally vague and bland, you have a relatively weak vocabulary. You can click on each word in question to see a possible alternative. Note that none of the words I suggest as a better alternative is an exact synonym for the original, but that, depending on the context, all convey meaning with more precision and emphasis.

Whether your vocabulary is weak or strong, hereís how you can improve it:

Read and listen. The secret to building your vocabulary is to pay attention. Note the vocabulary of writers who choose their words carefully. Pay attention to the language of speakers who use their words skillfully. Both sources offer certain advantages. To see a word in print reinforces your visual memory; to hear it pronounced aids your aural memory.

Listen and watch for words you donít know. Be on the lookout for words whose sound you like. Collect words you think might be useful to you, words that suit your style and personality. Learn the vocabulary of your field or profession.

Look up words you donít know. Use a good dictionary. (See Recommended resources and reading.) Learn not only their denotation (literal meaning) but their connotation (mood and feelings). Consider the context in which you encountered them.

Move words from your comprehensive to your expressive vocabulary. You possess two sets of vocabulary: a larger set of words you understand (at least vaguely) and a smaller set you use to express yourself. To move words from your larger comprehensive (or passive) vocabulary to your smaller expressive (or active) vocabulary, you need to know three things: how to define, pronounce, and spell them. Say the words you are trying to learn out loud. Practice using them.

Maintain a list of words you want to remember. To fix words in your long-term memory, write them down. If you care to take the time, note their definitions. Better yet, write down the sentences in which you heard them. Review your list at least once a week. See how many words you can write or recite from memory.

Youíll know that a word has become part of your expressive vocabulary when, in seeking to articulate a thought, the word pops into your mind or occurs to you without effort. When that happens, move the word from your weekly to your monthly review list, and give yourself a pat on the back: With each addition to your vocabulary not only are you speaking and writing more precisely, but you are thinking more precisely.

Ready for another test?

1. A good way to improve your argument is to support your assertions with specific examples.

2. A successful product launch involves introducing the right idea at the right time.

3. Your optimism may be without good reason.

4. Although not without fault, our CEO has provided good leadership.

5. Her reputation is still good, despite the false allegations.

6. Your argument is good.



First published February 19, 2007

Expand your vocabulary to communicate

By Stephen Wilbers

Our words are close to our hearts. We use them to convey our thoughts and ideas, values and concerns.

Sometimes we use our words just to show off, as in "I deem it imperative that we commence work on this project at our earliest possible convenience" when all we mean is "Letís get to work on this project."

And sometimes we canít think of the precise word that captures our thought, as in "His explanation for failing to file his report is hard to believe" when we might have said, "His explanation for failing to file his report is implausible."

Having a broad range of words at our command, and knowing how and when to use them, is key to effective communication.

Are you satisfied with your vocabulary? Would you like to improve it?

Reading, of course, is one of the better ways to learn new words, especially if you take the time to look up the ones you donít know. Simply being inquisitive also helps. If you listen attentively to the spoken or written language of articulate people, youíll gradually expand your vocabulary.

Another approach is to do vocabulary exercises like the ones I post weekly on my website. Want to try a few?

Fill in the blanks in the sentences below with words that capture the intended meaning more precisely than the words in square brackets:

"My boss, who is capable and organized, is [good] at managing multiple deadlines."

"You canít have effective writing without careful editing. The two are [solidly] linked."

"Itís one thing to make a minor mistake now and then, but to misspell your bossís name is an [really serious] error."

Did the following words occur to you: adept, inextricably, and egregious? Other words might serve as well, but do you know those three? Can you use them comfortably Ė that is, can you spell, define, and pronounce them?

Here are another three sentences:

"Iíve been working on this report for a week, so I want you to give it more than a [quick or superficial] look."

"His harsh views seem [not to fit] with his friendly manner."

"My colleague works hard and efficiently; his output is [really awesome]."

Do you know the words, cursory, incongruous, and prodigious?

One more set:

"To say youíre sorry in a way that casts blame elsewhere is [insincere or calculating]."

"His platform contains many points, but three Ė social justice, environmental integrity, and economic prosperity Ė are [prominent]."

"We drove all over town running errands on our way to the airport. In the future I would prefer a less [roundabout] route."

Did the following words occur to you: disingenuous, salient, and circuitous?

Itís not that big words are always better. If you have a simple thought to express, use a simple word to express it. Or as Garrison Keillor once said, "Why would you put a five-dollar haircut on a ten-cent head?"

But for more complex thoughts, a more expansive vocabulary will help you capture your intended meaning.


First published February 19, 2007

Use precise vocabulary to avoid cliches and wordiness

By Stephen Wilbers

Letís play a little game. Iíll give you three sentences. The first illustrates wordiness, the second plain or cliched word choice, and the third precise command of language. Here goes:

1. It goes without saying that the concern that has been expressed in regard to a decline in the quality of customer service is unquestionably nebulous and without merit.

2. The concern over customer service is a bunch of hot air.

3. The concern over customer service is unwarranted.

Now, to make it more interesting, Iíll change the order, and you identify which sentence illustrates which style (wordy, plain/cliched, or precise). Ready?

1. You shouldnít have let the cat out of the bag without talking to me beforehand.

2. You should have conferred with me before announcing your retirement.

3. To announce your impending retirement prior to dialoguing with me was both ill-advised and precipitous.

Do you agree that the sentences were plain/cliched, precise, and wordy, in that order?

Those examples are obvious. Now identify the three different styles in sentences whose characteristics are less pronounced. Which is wordy, plain/cliched, and precise?

1. The survey results are skewed.

2. The survey results are obviously specious.

3. The survey results are no good.

What do you say? Precise, wordy, and plain/cliched?

The point is that effective communication depends on precise word choice, and precise word choice depends on vocabulary.

To have many words rather than just a few to choose from enables you to express your thoughts clearly and to convey nuance or shades of meaning. To have only a limited command of language relegates you to stating things so simply that you may find it difficult to convey complex ideas.

But thereís a danger in possessing a broad vocabulary: You might be tempted to use language to show off or impress rather than to convey thoughts with the words that are appropriate for the occasion and the audience.

So first you must learn the word; then you must know when to use it.

Hereís how to improve your vocabulary:

Use a dictionary. It requires discipline to take the time to look up words and to learn how to spell and pronounce them, but itís the best way to expand your vocabulary. I recommend you use two kinds of dictionaries: a hard-copy dictionary and an online dictionary marked as a "favorite" on your browser. Youíll find my suggestions for hard-copy dictionaries at Resources.

Read. Thereís no substitute. If you hang out exclusively with people with limited vocabularies, you will have a limited vocabulary. If you spend time with people with broad vocabularies, you will learn their language (as well as their more interesting and varied sentence structures).

Be systematic. If youíre serious about improving your vocabulary, set a specific goal. I recommend you do three things: learn one new word a week, maintain a list, and review your list monthly.

But donít forget: First you must apprehend the word; then you must be cognizant of when to utilize it.



First published November 3, 1995

Broad vocabulary complements analytical writing

By Stephen Wilbers

Use plain language. Write simply. Avoid fancy words. The No. 1 attribute of effective business writing is clarity Ė plain and simple.

But, I am often asked, if plain, simple words are the only ones business writers should use, why bother to develop a broad vocabulary? Whatís the point of learning big words if only little ones are acceptable?

Ah, the business writerís dilemma. How does one balance the need to be understood by readers at all levels of ability against the desire to use language that most precisely captures the intended meaning? Doesnít dumbing down the language also entail dumbing down the complexity and nuance of thought?

In many instances, of course, choosing between simple language and precise language is a false dilemma. The simpler words are the more precise words. Compare ďIt is imperative that we effectuate a resolution to this dilemmaĒ with ďWe need to resolve this dilemma.Ē Here, the simpler language is not only more precise but also more succinct and emphatic.

But that leaves us with the suggestion that simpler language is necessarily better than complex language Ė and that leads to the unsettling notion that over time we as a society and a civilization might improve our discourse by simplifying it.

So, when is complex language preferable to simple language? If one mark of a good communicator is a broad vocabulary, when does the communicator get to use all the big words he or she has gathered so assiduously?

The answer has to do with the three basic components of all communication: purpose, audience, and material. The complexity of your language (or the breadth of your expressive range) depends on the nature of your objective, the sophistication of your reader, and the complexity of your material. An e-mail message rescheduling a meeting obviously calls for simpler language than a proposal advocating a new marketing strategy or a position paper calling for technical refinements in the dephosphorization of taconite pellets.

One type of writing in which a broad and varied vocabulary is undeniably advantageous is analytical or critical writing. If you ever do this type of writing, you might find the following words helpful. Itís not that the words themselves will carry your argument, but that if you learn to use them well, they will enable you to think and write with more precision, depth, and cogency.

Vocabulary counts.


Expand your analytical vocabulary

Vocabulary of process:

Logic/illogic; analysis; evidence & proof

Verbs / Adjectives / Nouns

   adverse, adversarial


   a priori

   assume, assumed, assumption

   attribute, attributed, attribute


   cause, causal, cause




   correlate, correlated, correlation

   corroborate, corroborated,

   deduce, deductive


   derive, derived, derivation


   disabuse, disabused




   indicate, indicative

   infer, inference

   induce, inductive

   insinuate, insinuated

   invert, inverted, inverse


   obtain, obtainable

   notice, noticed/unnoticed

   preempt, preempted

   presume, presumptuous,


   promulgate, promulgation

   reason, reasoned/
     unreasoned, reasoning

   rebut, rebuttal

   rectify, rectified

   refute, refuted, refutation

   scrutinize, scrutinized,

   speculate, speculation

   substantiate, substantiated/

   verify, verified

   warrant, warranted/



Vocabulary of evaluation:

Effectiveness/ineffectiveness; relevance/irrelevance;
validity/invalidity; precision/imprecision

Verbs / Adjectives / Nouns



   commend, commendable

   compel, compelling

   conclude, conclusive/inconclusive







   diminish, diminished

   entice, enticing, enticement




   fallible/infallible, fallibility/

   falsify, false

   flawed, flaw

   fathom, fathomable/unfathomable

   generalize, generalized,







   onerous, onerousness

   pertain, pertinent, pertinence


   prudent, prudence

   question, questionable,

   rigorous, rigor














Answers to exercises









































extenuating, mitigating




































disingenuous, specious, spurious








































































unwarranted, unjustified, groundless




































exemplary, admirable


















undiminished, unblemished, untarnished


















specious, unsubstantiated, spurious, ludicrous






















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