Timing of communication; choice of medium; tone and
point of view (perspective, attitude, and relationship regarding audience,
purpose, and material); recognition of audience (reader vs. writer
orientation); direct vs. indirect presentation (ordering of evidence and
conclusions); persuasive strategies and rhetorical appeals (logos, pathos,
□Timing and choice of medium
are appropriate to the purpose, audience, and material.
□Tone is appropriate to the
purpose, audience, and material.
□Material is made relevant to the
reader (reader’s interests and concerns are recognized).
□Conclusions are presented
directly (conclusion first, evidence last) to a sympathetic audience, indirectly
(evidence first, conclusion last) to an unsympathetic or hostile audience.
□Persuasive strategy incorporates
a mixture of rhetorical approaches (appeals to logic, feelings, and ethics or
Organization (logical arrangement and sequence);
evidence and support (relevance, specificity, accuracy and sufficiency of
detail); knowledge of subject and material; quality of perception, analysis,
□Material is arranged in a
logical and coherent sequence.
□Conclusion or closing restates
the argument and identifies the action to be taken.
□Examples are relevant, specific,
detailed, sufficient, and persuasive.
□Quotations support the argument.
□Handling of material demonstrates
knowledge and insight.
Presentation of thesis or central argument (statement
of purpose, delineation or narrowing of topic, relevance of subordinate or
secondary arguments); word choice; technical language and jargon; structure
(sentence, paragraph, document); coherence devices (organizational statement,
repetition of words and phrases, progression from familiar to unfamiliar,
topic and transitional sentences); textual markers (headings, highlighting,
□Purpose or central idea is
sufficiently limited for meaningful discussion.
□Purpose or central idea is stated
clearly, usually in the opening.
□Organizational statement is
offered, usually at the end of the opening.
□Subordinate ideas are effectively
identified and related clearly to the main purpose or central idea.
□Language is clear, specific,
accurate, and appropriate to the audience, purpose, and material.
□Word choice is clear, specific,
accurate, unassuming, and free of clichés and misused jargon.
□Technical language and terms are
defined and explained as needed (depending on knowledge of the audience).
□Sentences are free of ambiguity.
□Text is coherent, with new
information linked to previously discussed information (ordered within sentences
as “something old/something new”).
□Transitions between paragraphs
are clear and helpful.
□Text is appropriately highlighted
(bullets, paragraphing, boldface, italics, underlining, etc.) to engage the
reader and reinforce the main points.
Word choice (economy, precision, and specificity of
language and detail; abstract vs. concrete language; action verbs vs. linking
or weak verbs with nominalizations; figures of speech: schemes and tropes);
tone (personality and humor); active vs. passive voice; sentence variety
□Word choice is economical, clear,
specific, accurate, unassuming, and free of clichés and misused jargon.
□Action verbs are preferred over weak verbs with
nominalizations (as in recommend over make a recommendation).
□Language is appropriately
concrete or abstract (signifying or not signifying things that can be perceived
by the senses).
□Figurative language (metaphors
and similes, as well as other tropes and schemes) enrich and deepen the
□Active voice is preferred over
passive voice (active voice is used to emphasize the performer of the action;
passive voice is used to emphasize the receiver of the action).
□Sentences are free of wordiness
and unnecessarily complex constructions.
□Variety in sentence structure and
sentence length creates emphasis.
□Author’s values, personality and
– when appropriate – humor are conveyed in a way that reinforces the message.
Rules and conventions of spelling, grammar,
punctuation, usage, and idiom; style (appropriateness of word choice and level
of formality to audience, purpose, and material); social and cultural
appropriateness; accuracy in proofreading
□Spelling (including technical
terms and proper names) is correct.
□Correct words are used to convey
the intended meaning.
□Rules of grammar and syntax are
followed, including pronoun-noun agreement, subject-verb agreement, appropriate
verb tense, pronoun case, possessive forms, parallel construction, etc.
□Punctuation (particularly comma
placement) reflects standard usage.
□Copy is free of mechanical errors
and lapses in proofreading.